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Why Everything You Think You Know about Black Holes is Wrong: The Role of Nuclear Warfare, and the Importance of Trusting Your Analysis

So your fantasy has finally come true, you’re a space explorer!

spacecowboy

WHEEEEE! (Slater, 2017)

As you roam the universe making your discoveries, intrepid though you are, even you know to avoid getting too close to a black hole. Your only hope is to avoid orbiting suspicious patches of darkness since black holes are so massive nothing can escape their gravitational pull, not even light, and this makes them nearly impossible to find. Well… almost.

What if I told you that black holes are just almost black? To better understand this we’re going to have to take a field trip through nuclear science, nuclear warfare, and the importance of trusting your analysis.

Nuclear Science

For this topic we will specifically be discussing a part of the electromagnetic spectrum referred to as gamma rays, found on the left of this image:

EM Spec

Electromagnetic Spectrum (Lucas, 2015)

Two of the four ways gamma rays can be produced are via nuclear fusion and nuclear fission (Lucas, 2018).

Nuclear fusion occurs when extreme pressure forces the protons in the nucleus of one element to combine or fuse into another, heavier element. Using the ever famous E=mc2, the resulting difference in mass is converted to energy. Some of that released energy is emitted as gamma rays. The fusion of hydrogen into helium is what powers our sun (Lucas, 2018).

Nuclear fission occurs when the nucleus of a heavy element collides with other particles and is split into lighter elements. The particles resulting from this collision can then go on to collide with other heavy nuclei, which go on to do the same, resulting in a chain reaction. The resulting loss of mass from each split is converted to energy, again using E=mc2, some of which is emitted as gamma rays (Lucas, 2018). Fission reactions using uranium or plutonium are at the core of most nuclear weapons.

Nuclear Warfare

After the use of nuclear weapons against Japan at the end of World War II, their popularity as a status symbol for world powers blossomed. With this popularity came a variety of weapons tests as nations learned more about their effects and thermonuclear weapons (two-stage fission-fusion reaction) entered the mix. As testing increased, so did knowledge of the effects of fallout, “and as it soon became apparent.. no region was untouched by radioactive debris” (U.S. DoS, 2009-2017).

Castle Bravo

Castle Bravo 1954 – 14.8 Megaton thermonuclear test (AHF, 2014)

Due to concerns involving the effects of fallout, many nations came together to eventually sign the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water or as it is more commonly called, the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 (U.S. DoS, 2009-2017). Although treaty compliance verification was a major point of debate in forming this treaty, national technical means was the finally decided method.

The U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission worked together with the U.S. Air Force to launch two nuclear test detection satellites, Vela-5A and Vela-5B in 1969 (NASA, 2003). Part of the nuclear detection payload on these satellites included six gamma ray detectors (NASA, 2003).

The Importance of Trusting Your Analysis

So what does any of this have to do with black holes? I’m glad you asked (and that you’ve made it this far). In the late 1960s, Vela recorded bursts of gamma rays that did not resemble non-compliant nuclear testing and scientists soon discovered these bursts originated from deep in space, each lasting no more than 30 seconds (Bartusiak, 2018 and NASA, 2003). Technology advanced and now we know most gamma rays in space are emitted from the creation of black holes and the collision of neutron stars (Bartusiak, 2018). However, the gamma ray bursts lasting less than a tenth of a second still defied explanation.

In 1973 Soviet physicists, Yakov Zel’dovich and Alexander Starbinsky, suggested if a black hole is rotating the rotational energy would be released as radiation and the black hole would create particles (Bartusiak, 2018). Stephen Hawking expanded upon this theory explaining that all black holes would emit radiation, regardless of whether they were spinning, due to the energy of their intense gravitational fields (Bartusiak, 2018). Contrary to accepted black hole physics which claims black holes are, by their very definition, so massive that nothing can escape their pull, this theory would suggest black holes are slowly losing mass over time in the form of particles and will eventually disappear in a final violent explosion; or in the words of Hawking himself, “black holes ain’t so black” (Bartusiak, 2018).

black hole

Black hole emitting stuff like black holes… don’t? (Bartusiak, 2018)

Although Hawking estimated a black hole the size of several stellar masses would take longer than the current age of the universe to die, he also suggested the creation of micro-black holes as our universe began (Bartusiak, 2018). These “primordial black holes” (imagine a mountain compressed into the size of an atom) would experience accelerated loss over time and be going through their death throws now, releasing the same amount of energy as a million one-megaton thermonuclear bombs in the form of gamma rays (Bartusiak, 2018).

Hawking’s theory illustrates the distortion of space-time near a black hole to the point the energy of its gravitational field is converted into a matter / antimatter particle pair. Since time and distance is so fuzzy at the submicroscopic scale, it is possible for half of the particle pair to be pulled into the black hole while the other half escapes reducing the overall mass of the black hole by a tiny fraction, causing it to slowly evaporate one particle at a time (Bartusiak, 2018). In the case of a “primordial black hole,” the release of energy in its final moments would be a brief burst of gamma rays, like those first recorded by Vela, the nuclear test detection satellite (Bartusiak, 2018).

When Hawking presented this theory in 1974 at a quantum gravity conference he was met with heavy criticism from his peers, with the chairman responding that it was “absolute rubbish” (Bartusiak, 2018). However, as time progressed it became more and more clear that Hawking’s discovery demonstrated the deep connection between gravitational and quantum mechanics (Bartusiak, 2018). While searching for an answer that can explain the combination of these fields has eluded scientists for decades, Hawking proved their unification was in the realm of possibility.


References

Bartusiak, M. (2018). Dispatches From Planet 3: Thirty-Two (Brief) Tales on the Solar System, the Milky Way, and Beyond. THIRTY. The Great Escape (pp. 220-24). New Haven, & London: Yale University Press.

Lucas, J. (2018, November 29). What are Gamma-Rays?. Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/50215-gamma-rays.html

National Aeronautic and Space Administration: Goddard Space Flight Center. (2003, June 26). VELA-5A. NASA.gov. https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/heasarc/missions/vela5a.html

U.S. Department of State. (2007-2017). Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water. State.gov. https://2009-2017.state.gov/t/avc/trty/199116.htm

 

Image References

Atomic Heritage Foundation. (2014, June 17). Hydrogen Bomb – 1950. AtomicHeritage.org. https://www.atomicheritage.org/history/hydrogen-bomb-1950

Bartusiak, M. (2018). Dispatches From Planet 3: Thirty-Two (Brief) Tales on the Solar System, the Milky Way, and Beyond. THIRTY. The Great Escape (pp. 220-24). New Haven, & London: Yale University Press.

Lucas, J. (2015, March 13). What is Electromagnetic Radiation?. Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/38169-electromagnetism.html

Slater, N. (2017, December 19). Space Cowboy. Dribble. https://dribbble.com/shots/4032680-Space-Cowboy


Skyrim: Lydia the Psychopath

Today some dude randomly came running at me with his sword. I guess he was guarding a cave or something and we got too close?

Anyway, I’m standing there waiting for him to hit me so I don’t feel bad about fighting back, when Lydia just completely lost it. She jumps in front of me and just slaughters this guy and all his friends. Whoa.

So then we go into this dark, creepy cave and she’s all “I have a bad feeling about this…” Yes, Lydia. Thank you. I got that. But then I’m scrounging for food for us and she starts yawning.  I’m sorry, is my search for life giving sustenance boring you?!

Anyway, it wouldn’t let me thank her for killing that guy, and now that I know she’s apparently a psychopath I definitely want to stay on her good side, so I bought her a health necklace and an enchanted ring to boost her stamina.

Of course when I gave them to her she got all sarcastic again, *sigh* “I’m sworn to carry your burdens…” and I thought that was a little unfair, so I also bought her a horned helmet.

She looks very silly.

 

Wanna play a game…?


Skyrim: No one’s ever given me a girl before…

Today I killed a dragon; then I ate his soul. It’s complicated.  But now I can get people away from me by yelling at them and that’s pretty cool. The Jarl was so happy I saved the town he gave me a lot of stuff I can’t carry. Then he gave me a girl to help carry it, which was sweet, but now I have a girl following me around.

She seems to have a bit of a chip on her shoulder though. It’s hardly my fault the Jarl gave her to me. I tried to tell her I wasn’t comfortable owning her, but she was welcome to stay as a friend of her own free will – but the game wouldn’t let me express that properly.

She keeps asking how she can help so I asked her to carry some things for me to help her feel useful, because I know *I* like to feel useful, but she got snippy with me about it:

*sigh* “I’m sworn to carry your burdens…”

Maybe I’ll trade her for a dog. Dogs are never sarcastic about helping. No one’s ever given me a girl before.

***

It’s been a few days and Lydia (the girl) is still following me around and being snarky about carrying things. I’m trying to figure out if I need to feed her and make sure she sleeps or if she takes care of herself.

Can she die? What happens if I hit her? If I run into her she says “ouch” so I know she can feel…

It seems weird to just be all “okay… I’m going to bed… are you just going to stand there and stare at me all night…?”

Apparently I can tell her to wait places and she will. Can I leave her in the middle of nowhere? That seems dangerous. Shouldn’t I put her somewhere safe??

 

Wanna play a game…?


Skyrim: Welcome to Riverwood

Hadvar leads me to a town called Riverwood and introduces me to a couple there. He makes himself at home and begins babbling about Stormcloaks and dragons again. Really, I’ll need to teach him some new phrases.

“Well you’re pretty, I’ll give you that, ” says the lady of the house, “just stay away from my husband.”  I’m just full of good impressions it seems. I wonder if I’ll meet anyone in this world who doesn’t think the worst of me right away.

I wander around and find they seem to be okay with my taking one of everything, but I don’t. *I* find a bookcase. There can’t have been more than ten books on it but believe me I read them all.

Meanwhile, the terminator is trying to recruit me to join the Imperial Army because he can’t seem to remember the part where they tried to have me beheaded. He tells me to go to Whiterun and talk to the Jarl. As soon as he says this, those words roll up my screen like some great presentation but no one else seems to notice. I discover some menu buttons and figure this is now my mission.

I go back to reading books.

******

At some point during my reading I managed to wedge myself between the bookcase and a barrel. Despite the fact the barrel was empty, I couldn’t just push it out of the way because apparently I’m a huge wuss. I jumped around, ran into things, and generally made a huge commotion but the three other people in the room must have thought I’d turned rabid or something because no one came to help me.

Somewhere in the course of my cornered animal-like panic, I discovered I am MAGIC because I ended up shooting a fireball and igniting the wall of the house. I felt pretty bad about that but no one else seemed to notice or react in any way at all. I can’t help but think the force of the blast should have moved the barrel for me but physics seems to be broken today.

When I finally broke out I inspected the wall thoroughly and it wasn’t on fire anymore and there didn’t seem to be any damage. No one said anything about it but I helped the man forge some weapons for his shop later in an attempt to make amends.  Sorry I almost burned down your house, guy.

 

Wanna play a game…?


Skyrim: You’re getting awfully judgey, Screen.

I don’t know how but I somehow managed to not die a fiery death that day. Through a series of uncoordinated and clumsy movements I managed to catch up to the terminator, who stood patiently waiting among the chaos.

As  I approached him, he took off toward another building then stopped to watch me lumber along behind him. When I caught up he went in. I’m starting to sense a pattern here.

Inside, the terminator began babbling about dragons and Stormcloaks, which seemed a bit silly for a robot from the future, but I just kept my mouth shut and followed  him around like Igor from a Mel Brooks movie. This turned out to be a good strategy because he unbound my hands.

“Pickpocket Hadvar?” asked the screen. Oh. He has a name. Well that’s good. But stealing from a killer machine who just unbound my hands seems ungrateful at the very least.

“Let’s get you some supplies,” says Hadvar. So I wander off to explore the room.

“Pick lock?” my screen asks as I approach a prison cell. Picking locks and stealing from others, huh? You certainly don’t have a very high opinion of me, Screen. But why not? It looks empty to me… 

So I picked that lock and every other lock in the room. I also picked up everything I could and practiced moving around and jumping for a while. The terminator watched this all stoically from the door. An hour later I approached him.

“Are you done?”

Why yes, Hadvar, I’ve had my fill of this room. Lead on!

I’ll say one thing for him, he’s extremely patient. 

 

Wanna play a game…?

 


Skyrim: Swan Dive

I’m not moving.

I’m just standing there as panicked people spontaneously combust around me.

The terminator took off towards a door but I remain still. A brief experiment reveals I can now move on my own. Of course. NOW I can move. A fine time to be abandoned by my  possessors but all things considered they clearly want me dead.  This seems illogical. Never-the-less I attempt to run after my terminator and find I move with the grace of a newborn foal.

HOW MANY THUMBS AM I SUPPOSED TO HAVE?!

I stumble into the building my terminator disappeared into and find more people in a panic. Less of them are on fire though, so I figure we’re better off than before. I look around for Ulfric Stormcloak since the dragon came quite strategically and I’m no dummy but he’s no where to be seen.

The terminator informs me if we can make it to the something-or-another we should be safe and then takes off up the stairs. I’m a little confused, but I guess they don’t do so well with fire considering they’re made of metal.

I follow him up drunkenly and he yells, “follow me!” and jumps out a window. Maybe he wasn’t programmed to understand the vulnerabilities of humans? But then it occurs to me that no one ever said I was human, so I proceed to belly-flop into a burning pile of wood.

“Your hands are bound,” says the screen helpfully.

 

Wanna play a game…?

 


I think your brain is sexy.

Wow, I don’t really know how to respond to that. Mostly because I take a lot of things at face value and my first thought was quite literal.

Hot.

Hot.

So what am I doing today?

I’ll tell you what I’m not doing today.

I’m not doing any house work or homework or prepping for the week.

I’m not cleaning or organizing or cooking or planning for a potential move.

I’m not doing laundry or dishes, or the million other things written on the various to do lists I’ve made and promptly misplaced.

I’m not implementing any of the efficient systems I’ve created in my mind to make my life easier.

I’m not working on any of the half-finished or barely begun projects sitting neglected around the house.

I’m not crafting, planning or being productive in any way.

I’m pretty sure there’s someone in my yard – I am not going to check.

I am not running errands.

What I am doing is trying to figure out how I, personally, can draw a meerkat and a weasel and have them be identifiably different.  I’m a long way from being an artist. And why does spell check tell me meerkat is spelled wrong (twice)? Maybe it’s never been to a zoo.

I am also wondering why my dog is licking my toe and why beeswax smells like sunshine.

I am considering drinking champagne.

I am questioning if there’s a way to calculate the speed of thought and how it compares to the speed of light. Probably it’s different for everyone. Maybe I’ll research this later.

I may light some candles and make more coffee. I love coffee.

I wonder if my head will every stop hurting and why my feet always itch.

It almost smells like snow.

I’m comforted by the sound of my dog snoring.

I hope it rains.

My brain is swirling in a million directions but me? I am sitting still.


It’s all true. The government is spying on us.

YEP, another post today. But this one happened yesterday. And sort of the day before. So I am writing this from the past. Which is actually relevant, for once.

——————————————————–

SO, does this ever happen to you??

HA!! (Source)

Okay, so not really that. I mean you think of something and decide you want to know more about it. So you look it up. And while reading that you come across something else you find interesting and look that up. This leads you to something else and before you know it you’re lost in a sea of knowledge drifting ever further from where you began until you don’t even know how you got there.

Yeah. That happens to me a lot.

So this time, I started by looking up something and an hour later found myself looking at this:

Science. (Source)

Why yes, I do want the color exaggerated version, NASA. You know me so well.

Pretty nice work-up, though obviously fake.

No. Courtesy of the Cassini Solstice Mission. And the best part is we’re in it.

Hi Mom!!

Hi Mom!! (click to expand)

Seriously.

Ta-Da! (Source)

Fun fact: That little blurry bit at about the 10 o’clock position on the other little blurry Earth bit, is the moon.

So now I am going down the rabbit hole and I must know why NASA has this picture of me.  Should I be worried? Am I being stalked by Cassini from space? Do I need a restraining order or is there a moon-made ring in my future?

It’s time to roll up those sleeves, because we’re diving in.

So according to the official data, this is a compilation of 165 images taken by Cassini’s multiple instruments over a period of 3 hours on September 15, 2006.  One of these instruments can image a 2.4cm area from a distance of 4km.  This particular series covers 260km (or 162miles) per pixel.  I’ll give you a minute to let that sink in….

Also, this is a picture of Earth from the past.

Okay, yes. I know, all pictures are from the past. And I did just say this was taken in 2006. I got it. But stay with me here.

As I looked at this, I began wondering how far in the past the Earth was from the point of view of Cassini.  Not how old, how far in the past. For example, the Earth is roughly 8.33 light minutes from the sun.  So technically if you notice the sun is glaring off your computer screen like it does, it was actually in the position to do so 8.33 minutes ago and has since moved on.  You’re seeing the sun on an 8 minute delay.  Still with me? Good.

Now, Saturn is roughly ten times as far from the sun as the Earth and, as you can see, Cassini took this photo from beyond Saturn while facing the sun. So I looked into the statistics and found that Cassini was 2.2 million km from Saturn when it took this:

1 light minute = 17,987,547.5km

2,200,000km / 17,987,547.5km = 0.1223 light minutes OR roughly 7.3 light seconds

This means Saturn was roughly 7.3 seconds in the past to Cassini at the time the images were captured.

Also, Cassini was 1.5 billion km from Earth:

1,500,000,000km / 17,987,547.5km = 83.391 light minutes

Which means Earth was roughly 83.4 minutes in the past to Cassini at the time the images were taken.

So really what we’re looking at is:

Math happened. Click to expand.

Imagine you are Cassini. And math happened. (click to expand)

These images were then sent to Earth via one way radio transmission at the speed of light taking roughly 1hr 24min to get here.

Now who says science isn’t fun??


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